Organizational commitment (OC) is typically thought of in mainstream research as a beneficial behaviour, with employers mutually rewarding employees for their labor. However, in recent decades, there have been many signs that the benefits of OC cannot be taken for granted. The world of work is changing, with organizations downsizing, outsourcing labor activities and restructuring into leaner entities.Adding to this is the trend whereby almost everywhere, organizations are systematically striving to avoid long-term commitment to their workforce, by resorting to atypical, non-standard jobs (such as part-time work, temporary or agency employment, and other types of insecure jobs). This new regime of employment is an escape from organizational commitment and a tendency to avoid long-term relations.In this book, the author challenges the mainstream research on OC. Surveying the rise and fall of the idea of OC among corporate managers and employees, in an era of escape from responsibility and commitment, the author redefines OC as unique, unrewarded behavior of a minority of employees in times of trouble for their employing organization. These employees, who have alternatives in the labor market, continue to stay unrewarded with their organizations despite their ability to leave for a more secure and rewarding workplace.Presenting this new definition of OC, the author addresses theoretical and empirical flaws in the current concept, while returning to an idea of commitment that is more widely used in social sciences: Commitment as a guarantee of fulfilment of obligations, which are neither motivating nor pleasant, but necessary.