The book provides insights into the research of the Kurt W thrich laboratories from 1996-2020. During this time period, the technique of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in solution went through several breakthroughs, while maturing into a standard method of structural biology. With the introduction of TROSY (transverse relaxation-optimized spectroscopy), the range of accessible molecular sizes was extended about thirty-fold, and efficient protein structure determination resulted from the demands of the structural genomics initiative. Applications in fundamental biology and biomedicine include studies of prion proteins and prion diseases (TSEs), the SARS-Corona virus proteome, trans-membrane signalling by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), and signal transfer by pheromones.Key publications from the Kurt W thrich laboratories are placed in perspective, providing insights into new aspects of NMR spectroscopy in structural biology. In addition to methods development, this includes applications in diverse areas of biological research, such as prion proteins and their role in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), trans-membrane signal transfer by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), structural characterization of the SARS-Corona virus proteome, metabolic-flux profiling in bacterial cultures, and signal transfers by pheromones.