Lactobacillus is a highly phylogenetically and metabolically diverse genus comprising more than 200 species. As food-grade microorganisms, lactobacilli have long been exploited in the feed, food and beverage industries, with applications ranging from extending the shelf-life of food products to their use as probiotics with health-promoting properties. In addition lactobacilli are also important producers of industrial chemicals such as lactic acid and gamma-aminobutyric acid. This considerable commercial importance has stimulated a plethora of research projects studying the genomics, molecular biology and metabolic engineering of these bacteria and prompted the need for this concise book which provides a timely overview of the field. Topics covered include: the genomic perspective on niche adaptability; catabolic pathways of complex carbohydrates metabolism; the production of lactate; genetics, biology of the cell envelope and applications of the S-layer proteins; lactobacilli bacteriophage; DNA transfer into Lactobacillus species; recombinant gene expression and genomics of antibiotic resistance in Lactobacillus. This book is an invaluable source of information and essential reading for everyone working with lactobacilli, lactic acid bacteria and probiotics, from the PhD student to the experienced scientist, in academia, the pharmaceutical or biotechnology industries and those working in clinical environments.