The Carthaginians are well known as Rome's great enemy of the three Punic wars and Hannibal, their greatest general, is a household name. While narrative histories of the Punic wars (especially the second) and biographies of Hannibal abound, there have been few studies dedicated to detailed analysis of Carthaginian armies and warfare throughout the city-state's entire existence. Joshua Hall puts that right with this in-depth study of their tactics, equipment, unit organization, army composition and operational effectiveness. Importantly, while the Second Punic War is rightly given prominence, this is not at the expense of the many earlier wars Carthage waged as she built and then defended her empire. Drawing on all the available archaeological and literary evidence, the author shows the development of Carthage's forces and methods of warfare from the ninth century BC to the city's demise. The result is the most in-depth portrait of the Carthaginian military available in English.