Adel Abdel Ghafar is a fellow in the Foreign Policy programme at The Brookings Institution, Washington D.C, USA, and at the Brookings Doha Center, Qatar, where he was previously acting director of research. His publications include Egyptians in Revolt: The Political Economy of Labor and Student Mobilizations 1919-2011 (2017) and The Middle East: Revolution or Reform? (2014). He has researched and consulted for various intergovernmental organizations and government agencies including the European Union, the U.K. Foreign & Commonwealth Office, the Department for International Development (DFID), and the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Abdel Ghafar has a background in international banking and finance and holds a doctorate in political science and international relations from the Australian National University, Australia.